vietnam



Location: East Asia
Capital: Hanoi

Time zone: GMT/UTC plus 7 hours
Daylight savings time: no
Current time: 09:04
Population: 90,730,000
Currency: dong
Dialling code: +84
Internet suffix: .vn

Vietnam is a southeast Asian country known for its culture, cuisine, natural beauty and history.


Overall security situation: mostly secure
Social tensions and grievances: some elements of society have grievances
State resilience capabilities: institutions would be vulnerable to any future shock, crisis or disaster
Conflict situation: no conflict in recent decades
Civil unrest: residual level of risk; there are occasional protests and demonstrations, some of which can be large, but they are usually non-violent
Terrorism: extremely low level of risk (albeit not non-existent)
Crime: very low crime rate with limited petty crime, infrequent violent crime and generally good police coverage
Murder rate: very low; incidents are very uncommon
Gun ownership levels: moderately low in comparison to the rest of the world
Kidnapping hotspot: no
Maritime piracy hotspot: no
Do landmines/unexploded munitions pose a significant risk in parts of the country: yes


Aviation safety levels: potential concerns
Annual road fatality rates: very high
Vehicles drive on the: right
Infrastructure quality: good
Urban ATM availability: limited

Electricity supply: 220V 50Hz
Electricity supply reliability: relatively consistent
Plug types: A, C and D

Plug type A (2 flat pins, not grounded/earthed)

Plug type C (2 round pins, not grounded/earthed)

Plug type D (3 round pins, top pin is larger than the others, grounded/earthed, socket compatible with plug type C, unsafe socket compatibility with plug types E and F)



Is tap water drinkable: no
Healthcare quality: significant gaps in healthcare provision
Infectious disease prevalence: moderate

Vaccinations

Travellers should consult a medical practitioner prior to their trip but the following vaccines may be considered before travelling to the country, depending on factors such as specific destination, planned activities, intended time and length of stay as well as personal medical conditions (in some cases no additional vaccines may be required at all):

  • Cholera (usually only recommended for aid workers or those spending time in at-risk areas)
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B (not always needed)
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • Rabies (usually only for long-term stays, or for those spending time in isolated areas or coming into contact with animals)
  • Typhoid
  • Standard vaccinations (ie those commonly used in the developed world, such as diphtheria, measles, mumps, polio, rubella, tuberculosis and tetanus)

Disease presence

Malaria risk: low
Yellow fever presence: no
Dengue fever prevalence: frequent cases
Rabies prevalence: high risk
HIV prevalence in society: low
Hepatitis A prevalence: high
Hepatitis B prevalence: high
Hepatitis E prevalence: highly endemic
Cholera status: periodic outbreaks in some areas
Chikungunya virus presence: present

Zika virus presence: not recently reported
Japanese encephalitis presence: yes
Cutaneous leishmaniasis presence: non-endemic
Visceral leishmaniasis presence: non-endemic
Onchocerciasis presence: non-endemic
Schistosomiasis presence: none
Tick-borne encephalitis status: low/non-existent risk
Chagas disease presence: none

Typhoid fever presence: endemic
African trypanosomiasis presence: none
Plague status: present
Rift Valley fever status: not present
Lassa fever status: not present
Polio status: not endemic
Ebola outbreaks: no
Meningococcal meningitis hotspot: no


Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
Natural disaster risk: extremely high
Natural hazards: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta; landslides
Tropical storms: common
Volcanic activity: low/none
Previous earthquake(s) with over 1,000 fatalities: no


Government type: Communist state
Socio-economic development score: 5/10 (medium levels of socio-economic development)
Adult literacy rate: 94.5%
Unemployment rate: very low
Civil liberties: restricted
Investment rating: sub-investment grade / speculative grade / junk status
Corruption levels: fairly high
Same-sex sexual activity: legal
Death penalty: in use
Languages: Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Ethnic groups: Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, others 5.3%
Beliefs: Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8%

General guidelines

  • The following advice has been compiled by travel safety specialists and ex-special forces personnel.
  • However, please note that it is of a general nature only and may not reflect the reality of your circumstances.
  • Ensure you have proper insurance cover in place.
  • Select good quality accommodation and properly prepare for any tasks, excursions or other activities you have to undertake.
  • Be mindful of local laws and cultural norms, bearing in mind that they might be different to what you are accustomed to.
  • Consider conducting or obtaining a risk assessment specific to you, your profile and your trip, task or operation.
  • This should take into account the likelihood of potential risks affecting you, as well as the likely impact they will have, and will help you decide, depending on your risk appetite and implementable risk mitigation measures, whether or not you should proceed.

Road traffic accident

  • Be aware of local driving conditions and hazards.
  • Drive defensively and adhere to speed limits to minimise the risk of being caught up in an accident, or request that your driver(s) do the same.
  • If using a taxi or local driver, ensure that they are qualified and competent and that their vehicle appears well maintained.
  • Ensure that vehicles are in good working order before travel.
  • Perform regular checks on your vehicles for oil, fuel, tyres and seatbelts.
  • Consider taking additional equipment such as a jack, spare tyres, water, blankets, torches and a first aid kit, especially if travelling to more rural or isolated areas.
  • Consider using four-wheel drive vehicles for particularly poor road conditions.
  • Car users should know how to perform emergency repairs.

Weather

  • If rainfall, flooding, extreme temperatures or other types of severe weather are a concern, check the local weather patterns to find out if there are times of the year where the risk is much higher.
  • Consider avoiding travel to at-risk destinations during these times.
  • Try to stay in good quality accommodation.
  • Take appropriate clothing and footwear.
  • Take appropriate protection for any sensitive equipment you wish to bring.
  • Note that storms, flooding and other types of harsh weather can overload infrastructure, lead to traffic jams and power cuts.
  • Flooding and heavy rainfall can also raise the risk of landslides, as well as insect- and water-borne diseases in some parts of the world.
  • As such, be prepared to delay, alter or even cancel travel plans to affected or high-risk areas.

Healthcare

  • Bear in mind that healthcare facilities and services may be less extensive than what you are used to at home.
  • Facilities and services may be particularly limited in rural areas.
  • Pharmacies may not offer the same medications you might be accustomed to being able to purchase at home.
  • If you use any medications on a regular basis, consider taking extra supplies.
  • It may also be advisable to have them accompanied by a note from your doctor.
  • In the event of serious or complicated illness or injury it may be necessary for a patient to be evacuated out of the country.
  • Ensure that there is sufficient medical insurance in place to cover such an event.

Disease

  • Find out what specific diseases are present in your intended travel destinations.
  • Research the specific measures you should take to lower the risk of infection, bearing in mind that the disease(s) in question could be water, air or insect-borne.
  • It might be useful to seek medical advice prior to your trip.
  • If possible, do this several weeks in advance of your travel, in case you need to obtain specific vaccinations, some of which can take time to be administered properly.
  • Be aware of any potential outbreaks which may be taking place in the country.
  • Be careful with any cuts and grazes which might be more susceptible to infection in your travel destination than at home.
  • Hygiene will be very important, but it can be more challenging to maintain good standards of hygiene in some parts of the world where sanitary products, cleaning products and even clean water can be hard to obtain.
  • It might be advisable to bring extra supplies with you.
  • It would be better to take them and not use them than to leave them behind and then need them in a challenging situation.
  • You may also encounter challenges over where and what you want to eat.
  • Try to avoid venues which appear unsanitary.
  • Be very aware of any medical symptoms which might arise, both when you are travelling and for up to a month after you return home.
  • Seek medical assistance if you have any concerns.
  • Bear in mind that local doctors in your home country might not be familiar with certain tropical diseases.
  • If you become ill on your return, inform your doctor where you have been and ensure that unfamiliar tropical diseases are taken into consideration as a possible diagnosis.

Civil unrest

  • Civil unrest can lead to road closures and even curfews, which can affect your travel plans.
  • Be prepared for delays and route alterations.
  • Avoid demonstrations as they can turn violent.
  • Large gatherings of people can be difficult to predict or control and can lead to issues such as mob violence, arson, assault and looting.
  • The security forces may use excessive force to control events in some circumstances, posing an indiscriminate risk to anyone in the area.
  • Even without any particular violence, large demonstrations can be at risk of poor crowd control, which can lead to crushes and stampedes.
  • If demonstrations take place on a frequent basis, research the trends which tend to accompany them.
  • Where do they tend to take place? Do they tend to turn violent? Do attendees target specific types of building or representative interests associated with a specific nationality, industry, political group (such as party-political offices, state buildings or foreign-owned businesses)?
  • Once you have identified the sorts of risks, trends and areas of higher risk to be avoided you can start planning to minimise your exposure.
  • If civil unrest appears to be particularly volatile, or set to last for an extended period, try to stock up with essential items (including food, water and medicine) in case you are stuck in your accommodation or work place or other location for an extended period of time.
  • Be prepared to alter your plans at short notice and even to leave the area or even the whole country if conditions escalate. deteriorate.
  • Identify evacuation routes and safe havens in case you need to get out of harms way at short notice.
  • It is also advisable to identify the evacuation routes and fire safety procedures at your accommodation and/or work place in case you need to leave in a hurry.
  • Beware of photography at sensitive sites or during civil disturbance.

Crime

  • Research and familiarise yourself with your destination in advance of travel.
  • Find out what the local criminal trends are and identify any potential hotspots, such as certain neighbourhoods.
  • You may wish to avoid the higher risk areas, but this is not always practical.
  • As such, in higher risk areas exercise caution and be aware of your surroundings.
  • Note that jewellery, watches, mobile phones, laptops or other items may mark you out as a potential target for petty thieves.
  • Be careful with your wallet and cash.
  • Note that crime trends can change, and the level of risk can become higher, after dark.
  • In general, use your gut instincts and be prepared avoid situations, places or people that seem suspicious, odd or wrong in some way.

Cash

  • Consider obtaining specific insurance that covers the loss or theft of the amount of cash you are likely going to have to carry around with you.
  • Consider the logistics of storing and carrying large amounts of cash with you.
  • Try to use a reliable safe or other secure storage place for the cash, such as in your accommodation (although note that safes in accommodation might not be secure either).
  • When carrying large amounts of cash be as discreet as possible.
  • Avoid making it clear to other people how much cash you have on you.

Aviation safety

  • Try to use reputable airlines.
  • Check the safety records of any companies you use to charter flights.
  • Check the weather forecast in advance of travel – particularly for domestic flights.
  • Consider delaying your trip or using an alternative means of transport rather than taking a risky flight.

Unexploded ordnance

  • Find out where the at-risk areas are in a country and consider avoiding them, particularly if any minefields are poorly demarcated.
  • If you have to go to an at-risk area, consider undergoing minefield awareness training first.
  • Seek local knowledge on the whereabouts of potential unexploded ordnance as residents will often have the most up-to-date information.
  • Stick to well used roads, routes and paths.
  • Don’t touch or approach suspicious items.
  • If in doubt when travelling, especially on foot, turn back and retrace your steps.
  • If driving in an at-risk area, avoid leaving the vehicle as far as possible.
  • Take particular care after heavy rainfall as flooding can wash away warning signs or even displace unexploded ordnance and move it into new areas.