palestine



Location: Middle East
Capital: Ramallah (although East Jerusalem is regarded as a desired future capital)

Time zone: GMT/UTC plus 2 hours
Daylight savings time: during northern hemisphere summer
Current time: 16:15
Population: 4,682,467
Currency: Israeli new shekel/Jordanian dinar
Dialling code: +970
Internet suffix: .ps

The Palestinian Territories are known for their culture and sites of historical interest, although the border demarcation and sovereignty of the West Bank and Gaza Strip remain subject to international dispute which continues to foster political instability and violence.


Overall security situation: several security challenges exist
Social tensions and grievances: elements of society have notable grievances, leading to sporadic incidents of disquiet
State resilience capabilities: institutions are somewhat resilient but there is significant room for improvement
Conflict situation: conflict has taken place in recent years
Civil unrest: cautionary level of risk; protests and demonstrations are frequent with significant disruption and/or fatal violence
Terrorism: high level of risk with fairly regular terrorist incidents causing extensive damage and casualties
Crime: low crime rate with some petty crime and limited violent crime
Murder rate: moderately high (although note that a proportion of the murders are deemed to be acts of political violence such as terrorism, rather than criminal or financially-motivated)
Gun ownership levels: moderately low in comparison to the rest of the world
Kidnapping hotspot: no
Maritime piracy hotspot: no
Do landmines/unexploded munitions pose a significant risk in parts of the country: no


Aviation safety levels: grounds for concern
Annual road fatality rates: low
Vehicles drive on the: right
Infrastructure quality: poor
Urban ATM availability: moderate/limited
Electricity supply: 230V 50Hz
Electricity supply reliability: poor
Plug types: C and H

Plug type C (2 round pins, not grounded/earthed)

Plug type H (3 round pins, grounded/earthed, socket compatible with plug type C, unsafe socket compatibility with plug types E and F)




Is tap water drinkable: no
Healthcare quality: good healthcare provision
Infectious disease prevalence: extremely low

Vaccinations

Travellers should consult a medical practitioner prior to their trip but the following vaccines may be considered before travelling to the country, depending on factors such as specific destination, planned activities, intended time and length of stay as well as personal medical conditions (in some cases no additional vaccines may be required at all):

  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B (not always needed)
  • Rabies (usually only for long-term stays, or for those spending time in isolated areas or coming into contact with animals)
  • Typhoid
  • Standard vaccinations (ie those commonly used in the developed world, such as diphtheria, measles, mumps, polio, rubella, tuberculosis and tetanus)

Disease presence

Malaria risk: none
Yellow fever presence: no
Dengue fever prevalence: rare/non-existent
Rabies prevalence: high risk
HIV prevalence in society: low
Hepatitis A prevalence: high
Hepatitis B prevalence: low
Hepatitis E prevalence: not highly endemic
Cholera status: low risk
Chikungunya virus presence: not present

Zika virus presence: not recently reported
Japanese encephalitis presence: no
Cutaneous leishmaniasis presence: endemic
Visceral leishmaniasis presence: endemic
Onchocerciasis presence: non-endemic
Schistosomiasis presence: none
Tick-borne encephalitis status: low/non-existent risk
Chagas disease presence: none

Typhoid fever presence: endemic
African trypanosomiasis presence: none
Plague status: not thought to be present
Rift Valley fever status: not present
Lassa fever status: not present
Polio status: not endemic
Ebola outbreaks: no
Meningococcal meningitis hotspot: no


Climate: temperate; temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters
Terrain: Gaza Strip: flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain; West Bank: mostly rugged, dissected upland in west, flat plains descending to Jordan River valley to the east
Natural disaster risk: low
Natural hazards: drought; flooding; storms; extreme temperatures
Tropical storms: few/none
Volcanic activity: low/none
Previous earthquake(s) with over 1,000 fatalities: no


Government type: interim authorities
Socio-economic development score: 4/10 (low levels of socio-economic development)
Adult literacy rate: 96.5% (both Gaza Strip and the West Bank)
Unemployment rate: high
Civil liberties: restricted
Investment rating: not rated
Corruption levels: fairly high
Same-sex sexual activity: legal in the West Bank; illegal in the Gaza Strip
Death penalty: in use
Languages: Arabic, Hebrew, English
Ethnic groups: West Bank: Palestinian Arab and other 83%, Jewish 17%
Beliefs: West Bank: Muslim 80.0 – 85.0% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 12.0 – 14.0%, Christian 1.0 – 2.5% (mainly Greek Orthodox), other, unaffiliated, unspecified <1.0%; Gaza Strip: Muslim 98.0 – 99.0% (predominantly Sunni), Christian <1.0%, other, unaffiliated, unspecified <1.0%

General guidelines

  • The following advice has been compiled by travel safety specialists and ex-special forces personnel.
  • However, please note that it is of a general nature only and may not reflect the reality of your circumstances.
  • Ensure you have proper insurance cover in place.
  • Select good quality accommodation and properly prepare for any tasks, excursions or other activities you have to undertake.
  • Be mindful of local laws and cultural norms, bearing in mind that they might be different to what you are accustomed to.
  • Consider conducting or obtaining a risk assessment specific to you, your profile and your trip, task or operation.
  • This should take into account the likelihood of potential risks affecting you, as well as the likely impact they will have, and will help you decide, depending on your risk appetite and implementable risk mitigation measures, whether or not you should proceed.

Foreign government warnings

  • Pay attention to the advice issued by your government and/or other countries (such as the US or UK).
  • For most travellers, it will be very much advisable to avoid any areas deemed to be high-risk by official government bodies.
  • For those who need to travel to these locations for work, personal or other essential reasons should consider the risks likely to be present and take appropriate measures.
  • Insurance may not be valid for travel undertaken to these areas, so it is advisable to check with your provider before travel.
  • Note that areas of official high-risk might change at short notice.

Infrastructure

  • Be prepared for potentially poor-quality roads and other forms of transportation.
  • This can make it difficult to get around.
  • Consider obtaining a high-quality vehicle that can handle difficult terrain if you intend to travel anywhere with particularly bad-quality roads.
  • Bear in mind that traffic safety conditions may be poor.
  • Try to ensure that any accommodation or workplace is located in a good quality building.
  • Bear in mind that in the event of an accident or emergency, the emergency response services may have very limited resources available.

Healthcare

  • Bear in mind that healthcare facilities and services may be significantly less extensive than more developed countries.
  • There may be very limited facilities, staff, techniques and medications available, especially in more isolated or underdeveloped areas.
  • There may not be adequate reliable blood supplies in local hospitals.
  • Pharmacists and other sources of even basic medical products may be difficult to find.
  • Aim to be as medically self-sufficient as possible, taking basic medical supplies.
  • Research whether or not certain medications are legal in your destination(s).
  • Take extra supplies of any routinely-taken medicines.
  • It may also be advisable to have them accompanied by a note from your doctor.
  • Avoid carrying medication for other travellers.
  • In the event of serious illness or injury it may be necessary for a patient to be evacuated out of the country.
  • Ensure that there is sufficient medical insurance in place to cover such an event.

Religious or conservative attitudes

  • Exercise sensitivity in societies which place a high value on perceived morality, even if it goes against personal beliefs and values.
  • Research what local cultural practises, attitudes, values and laws you will need to be mindful of before travelling.
  • Note that some behaviours, interactions and attire may also attract unwanted attention, cause offence or trigger a hostile response.
  • Note that some subjects may be taboo so avoid discussing them with people if you think it might cause offence.

Crime

  • Research and familiarise yourself with your destination in advance of travel.
  • Find out what the local criminal trends are and identify any potential hotspots, such as certain neighbourhoods.
  • Note than crime levels can often be higher around public transport, shopping areas and crowded places.
  • In higher risk areas exercise caution and be aware of your surroundings.
  • Try not to overtly display your belongings or anything that could make you appear wealthy.
  • Ask yourself if you need to show off your jewellery, watch, mobile phone or other items or equipment.
  • Try to keep your wallet or cash hidden.
  • It also helps to avoid appearing vulnerable in at-risk areas so try to display confidence and purpose as you move around.
  • Avoid consulting a map in public as this will mark you out as both unfamiliar with the environment as well as being potentially vulnerable.
  • Familiarise yourself with local maps and directions before wandering around.
  • Identify routes to your accommodation and other safe havens (such as police stations, embassies, commercial areas with a police presence or quieter, safer neighbourhoods for example).
  • Familiarise yourself with landmarks so you can orientate yourself and find your way out of trouble spots if you need to.
  • Note that crime trends can change, and the level of risk can become higher, after dark.
  • It might be advisable to avoid wandering around at night.
  • Avoid dark alleys in urban areas.
  • It is might also be advisable to travel in pairs or in a group.
  • It may also be preferable to drive or be driven around certain areas rather than walking around in the street, even for going relatively short distances.
  • In general, use your gut instincts and be prepared to avoid situations, places or people that seem suspicious, odd or wrong in some way.

Civil unrest

  • Civil unrest can lead to road closures and even curfews, which can affect your travel plans.
  • Be prepared for delays and route alterations.
  • Avoid demonstrations as they can turn violent.
  • Large gatherings of people can be difficult to predict or control and can lead to issues such as mob violence, arson, assault and looting.
  • The security forces may use excessive force to control events in some circumstances, posing an indiscriminate risk to anyone in the area.
  • Even without any particular violence, large demonstrations can be at risk of poor crowd control, which can lead to crushes and stampedes.
  • If demonstrations take place on a frequent basis, research the trends which tend to accompany them.
  • Where do they tend to take place? Do they tend to turn violent? Do attendees target specific types of building or representative interests associated with a specific nationality, industry, political group (such as party-political offices, state buildings or foreign-owned businesses)?
  • Once you have identified the sorts of risks, trends and areas of higher risk to be avoided you can start planning to minimise your exposure.
  • If civil unrest appears to be particularly volatile, or set to last for an extended period, try to stock up with essential items (including food, water and medicine) in case you are stuck in your accommodation or work place or other location for an extended period of time.
  • Be prepared to alter your plans at short notice and even to leave the area or even the whole country if conditions escalate. deteriorate.
  • Identify evacuation routes and safe havens in case you need to get out of harms way at short notice.
  • It is also advisable to identify the evacuation routes and fire safety procedures at your accommodation and/or work place in case you need to leave in a hurry.
  • Beware of photography at sensitive sites or during civil disturbance.

Terrorism

  • Monitor and assess the trends and tactics of any relevant terrorist organisations with the potential for targeting your location and identify potential targets.
  • For particularly at-risk areas, the most effective risk mitigation advice is simply to avoid them.
  • Use your judgement on the frequency of incidents taking place and decide whether or not your journey to an at-risk location is needed.
  • Be vigilant in and around higher-risk areas, which could include crowded places, symbolic or sensitive political sites, or busy restaurant, nightlife or tourist spots.
  • Depending on the situation and circumstances (including your own work, nationality, lifestyle and other profile aspects) you might need to enact security measures for protection in higher-risk areas.
  • Be aware of your surroundings and be prepared to react at short notice in the event of an incident.
  • In the event of an incident, get out of the area quickly if it is safe to do so.
  • Alternatively hide and try to keep out of harm’s way.
  • In most cases you should only try to help other people if it is safe for you to do so.
  • Keep quiet and notify the relevant authorities, colleagues or loved ones only when you are out of danger.

Instability

  • Bear in mind that conditions could deteriorate in the future.
  • Monitor the news closely and pay attention to official advice issued by foreign governments (such as the British Foreign Office or US State Department).
  • Stay in communication with other people working and/or travelling with you, as well as your colleagues, employers and/or loved ones out of the country.
  • If such a deterioration takes place, note that the process could be gradual, or it could be very sudden.
  • Have contingency plans in place, including evacuation routes, safe havens and alternatives if these areas suddenly become unsafe or unreachable.
  • During a crisis, roads might be blocked or congested, airports could be chaotic, and borders may be sealed so it helps to have a range of potential options.
  • In times of heightened tension, be prepared to leave at short notice.
  • Alternatively, if the situation on the ground is hazardous, it might be preferable to stay in a ‘hold fast’ position in secure accommodation and await conditions to stabilise.
  • Have adequate stocks of fuel, food, water and medication to either stay in the hold fast position, or to take with you on your journey, in case it involves lengthy delays.
  • Have your valuables and other essential items close at hand and ready to take with you at short notice (for example in a ‘grab bag’).
  • Ensure that you have adequate insurance in place to cover you for an evacuation if one is required.

Weather

  • If rainfall, flooding, extreme temperatures or other types of severe weather are a concern, check the local weather patterns to find out if there are times of the year where the risk is much higher.
  • Consider avoiding travel to at-risk destinations during these times.
  • Try to stay in good quality accommodation.
  • Take appropriate clothing and footwear.
  • Take appropriate protection for any sensitive equipment you wish to bring.
  • Note that storms, flooding and other types of harsh weather can overload infrastructure, lead to traffic jams and power cuts.
  • Flooding and heavy rainfall can also raise the risk of landslides, as well as insect- and water-borne diseases in some parts of the world.
  • As such, be prepared to delay, alter or even cancel travel plans to affected or high-risk areas.