Location: Eastern Europe
Time zone: GMT/UTC plus 2 hours
Daylight savings time: during northern hemisphere summer
Current time: 06:00
Dialling code: +372
Internet suffix: .ee
Estonia is a small Baltic country and popular traveller destination. It performs very well from a travel risk perspective.
Overall security situation: mostly secure
Crime rate: very low
Murder rate: moderate
Gun ownership levels: moderately high
Kidnapping hotspot: no
Maritime piracy hotspot: no
Do landmines/unexploded munitions pose a significant risk in parts of the country: no
Estonia is a mostly stable and secure Baltic country. Institutions are well-evolved, efficient and resilient. The public is mostly content. Demonstrations are usually infrequent, peaceful, orderly and professionally managed. There is also a relatively low risk of terrorism.
The crime rate is also very low, with limited petty crime, infrequent violent crime and generally good police coverage. The country has an above-average guns-per-person ratio and the murder rate is moderate, but this is normally due to personal disputes escalating rather than organised criminality.
Aviation safety levels: potential concerns but generally thought of as standard
Annual road fatality rates: low
Vehicles drive on the: right
Infrastructure quality: good
Urban ATM availability: very good
Electricity supply: 230V 50Hz
Electricity supply reliability: relatively consistent
Plug types: C and F
Plug type C (2 round pins, not grounded/earthed)
Plug type F (2 round pins, grounded/earthed, socket compatible with plug types C and E)
Is tap water drinkable: yes but precautions are advised and/or occasional health scares have been reported which necessitate periodic care
Healthcare quality: good healthcare provision
Infectious disease prevalence: extremely low
Travellers should consult a medical practitioner prior to their trip but the following vaccines may be considered before travelling to the country, depending on factors such as specific destination, planned activities, intended time and length of stay as well as personal medical conditions (in some cases no additional vaccines may be required at all):
- Hepatitis A
- Tick-borne encephalitis (usually only for those spending time in at-risk forested areas)
- Standard vaccinations (ie those commonly used in the developed world, such as diphtheria, measles, mumps, polio, rubella, tuberculosis and tetanus)
Malaria risk: none
Yellow fever presence: no
Dengue fever prevalence: rare/non-existent
Rabies prevalence: rare/non-existent
HIV prevalence in society: high
Hepatitis A prevalence: intermediate
Hepatitis B prevalence: low
Hepatitis E prevalence: not highly endemic
Cholera status: low risk
Chikungunya virus presence: not present
Zika virus presence: not recently reported
Japanese encephalitis presence: no
Cutaneous leishmaniasis presence: non-endemic
Visceral leishmaniasis presence: non-endemic
Onchocerciasis presence: non-endemic
Schistosomiasis presence: none
Tick-borne encephalitis status: high risk in many areas
Chagas disease presence: none
Typhoid fever presence: sporadic
African trypanosomiasis presence: none
Plague status: not thought to be present
Rift Valley fever status: not present
Lassa fever status: not present
Polio status: not endemic
Ebola outbreaks: no
Meningococcal meningitis hotspot: no
Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrain: marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Natural disaster risk: very low
Natural hazards: storms, extreme temperatures, occasional flooding in the spring
Tropical storms: few/none
Volcanic activity: low/none
Previous earthquake(s) with over 1,000 fatalities: no
Government type: parliamentary republic
Socio-economic development score: 9/10 (very high levels of socio-economic development)
Adult literacy rate: 99.8%
Unemployment rate: low
Civil liberties: well respected
Investment rating: investment grade
Corruption levels: fairly low
Same-sex sexual activity: legal
Death penalty: abolished
Languages: Estonian (official) 68.5%, Russian 29.6%, Ukrainian 0.6%, other 1.2%
Ethnic groups: Estonian 68.7%, Russian 24.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%, Belarusian 1%, Finn 0.6%, other 1.6%, unspecified 1.6%
Beliefs: Lutheran 9.9%, Orthodox 16.2%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%, unspecified 16.7%
- The following advice has been compiled by travel safety specialists and ex-special forces personnel.
- However, please note that it is of a general nature only and may not reflect the reality of your circumstances.
- Ensure you have proper insurance cover in place.
- Select good quality accommodation and properly prepare for any tasks, excursions or other activities you have to undertake.
- Be mindful of local laws and cultural norms, bearing in mind that they might be different to what you are accustomed to.
Safe country guidelines
- Even in relatively safe parts of the world, accidents, illnesses and other incidents can still affect traveller safety.
- Make sure you know how to find help if you need it (such as the local emergency service numbers).
- There may still be a risk of opportunistic crime so be mindful of your belongings and take responsibility for your own actions.
- If rainfall, flooding, extreme temperatures or other types of severe weather are a concern, check the local weather patterns to find out if there are times of the year where the risk is much higher.
- Consider avoiding travel to at-risk destinations during these times.
- Try to stay in good quality accommodation.
- Take appropriate clothing and footwear.
- Take appropriate protection for any sensitive equipment you wish to bring.
- Note that storms, flooding and other types of harsh weather can overload infrastructure, lead to traffic jams and power cuts.
- Flooding and heavy rainfall can also raise the risk of landslides, as well as insect- and water-borne diseases in some parts of the world.
- As such, be prepared to delay, alter or even cancel travel plans to affected or high-risk areas.